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Parker Study of Theory for Nursing Practice A Guide for Study of Nursing Theory for Use in Practice Study of Theory for Nursing Administration Summary References Nurses order 600mg linezolid mastercard virus quarantine definition, individually and in groups purchase 600mg linezolid visa antibiotic resistant staphylococcus aureus, are affected Theories and practices from related disciplines by rapid and dramatic change throughout health are brought to nursing to use for nursing purposes purchase genuine linezolid on-line infection risk factors. Nurses practice in increas- The scope of nursing practice is continually being ingly diverse settings and often develop organized nursing practices through which accessible health The scope of nursing practice is continu- care to communities can be provided. Community ally being expanded to include additional members may be active participants in selecting, knowledge and skills from related designing, and evaluating the nursing they receive. This guide was tice in hospitals, an increasing number of nurses developed for use by practicing nurses and students practice elsewhere in the community, taking the in undergraduate and graduate nursing education venue of their practice closer to those served by programs. The guide may be used to to provide nursing often realize that they share the study most of the nursing theories developed at all same values and beliefs about nursing. It has been used to create surveys of nursing nursing theories can clarify the purposes of nursing theories. An early motivation for developing this and facilitate building a cohesive practice to meet guide was the work by the Nursing Development these purposes. This chapter offers guides for continuing study 1 How is nursing conceptualized in the of nursing theory for use in nursing practice. Because many nurses are creating new practice or- ganizations and settings, a guide for study of nurs- Is the focus of nursing stated? The ﬁrst guide is a set of • What does the nurse think about when con- questions for consideration in study and selection sidering nursing? The second • What are illustrations of use of the theory to guide is an outline of factors to consider when guide practice? Responses to questions offered and points sum- • What do nurses do when they are practicing marized in the guides may be found in nursing lit- nursing? Subsequent chapters of this • Is the richness and complexity of nursing book offer such sources. Four main questions have been developed and re- • What is the range of nursing situations in ﬁned to facilitate study of nursing theories for use which the theory is useful? What major resources are authoritative • How can interactions of the nurse and the sources on the theory? What are major theoretical inﬂuences on this • Is the theory used to guide programs of nurs- theory? What were major external inﬂuences on devel- • Has nursing research led to further theory opment of the theory? What are projected inﬂuences of the theory on 3 Who are authoritative sources for infor- nursing’s future? Who are nursing authorities who speak about, • In what ways has nursing as a professional write about, and use the theory? Nurses in group practice may seek to use a nursing theory that will not only guide their practice, but also pro- vide visions for the organization and administra- This chapter has presented a guide designed tion of their practice. A shared understanding of for nurses to study nursing theory for use in the focus of nursing can facilitate goal-setting and practice. The guide is intended to accompany achievement as well as day-to-day communication more general formats of analysis and evalua- among nurses in practice and administration. This guide provides Allison and McLaughlin-Renpenning (1999) de- additional evaluative components for nurses scribe the need for a vision of nursing shared by all who are focusing on nursing practice. These questions are in- strate that a theory of nursing can guide practice as tended to further guide the study of nursing well as the organization and administration. The following questions are derived from components of a nursing administration model References (Allison & McLaughlin-Renpenning, 1999). Nursing questions are intended to guide descriptions of the administration in the 21st century: A self-care theory approach. New • How can the range of nursing situations be de- York: National League for Nursing. A nursing administration perspective on use • What nursing and related technologies are re- of Orem’s self-care nursing theory. Parker Introduction Why Evaluate Resources for Nursing Inquiry and Research Theory as a Guiding Framework for Evaluation How Do You Know What You Know? And if one begins, can the information that is often “here today and Never in human history have such vast quantities of gone tomorrow” be relied upon as accurate and information been so easily available. How can the information be evalu- brief space of a few decades, the acquisition, stor- ated?
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Hepatocytes are pale- Aspirin inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis purchase linezolid australia antibiotics for acne rash, irreversibly acety- staining due to intracellular fat droplets generic linezolid 600mg visa infection from tattoo. Adverse effects and contraindications 30 These include: • Salicylism – toxic doses of salicylates generic 600mg linezolid visa antibiotics for acne skin, including aspirin, cause tinnitus, deafness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and flushing and fever. Aspirin should Pharmacokinetics not be given to patients with active peptic ulceration. Aspirin is subject to con- • Aspirin-sensitive asthma occurs in approximately 5% of siderable presystemic metabolism (to salicylate), so the plasma asthmatics (Chapter 33). It is associated with nasal concentration of aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) is much lower polyps. Abnormal of the selectivity of aspirin for platelet cyclo-oxygenase is leukotriene (Chapter 33) production and sensitivity are probably due to exposure of platelets to high concentrations implicated. In addition, aspirin and similar drugs can of aspirin in portal blood, whereas tissues are exposed to the directly activate eosinophils and mast cells in these lower concentrations present in the systemic circulation. Salicylate is metabolized in the liver by five main parallel path- • Reye’s syndrome, a rare disease of children, with high ways, two of which are saturable (Michaelis–Menten kinetics) mortality, is characterized by hepatic failure and and is also excreted unchanged in the urine by a first-order encephalopathy, often occurring in the setting of a viral process. Urinary elimination They occasionally cause local irritation of the skin, but adverse of salicylate is considerably influenced by pH, being more rapid effects are otherwise uncommon. It is less of a respiratory depressant than the opioids anticoagulants via effects on platelets, gastrotoxicity and, and does not cause dependence. Neither toler- should not be given to neonates with hyperbilirubinaemia ance nor drug dependence occur. Ibuprofen has an approximately similar analgesic potency to paracetamol and, in addition, has useful anti-inflammatory Adverse effects and contraindications activity, so it is an alternative to aspirin for painful conditions Nefopam has few severe (life-threatening) effects, although con- with an inflammatory component (e. It is contraindicated in patients with epilepsy, and also reversible cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, but causes rather less in patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (see below). These include sweating, including reversible renal impairment in patients who are eld- nausea, headache, dry mouth, insomnia, dizziness and anorexia. It Nefopam is contraindicated in glaucoma, and can cause urinary reduces the efficacy of antihypertensive medication and of retention in men with prostatic hypertrophy. It is extensively metabolized by the liver to inactive com- pounds excreted in the urine. Some anaes- • The main drugs for mild pain are paracetamol, aspirin thetists give synthetic high potency opioids, such as fentanyl, and ibuprofen. Several endogenous peptides with analgesic • Aspirin: properties are widely distributed throughout the nervous sys- – is anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic; tem. They can be divided into the following three groups: – is uniquely useful for its antiplatelet effect (see Chapters 29 and 30); 1. Opium is derived from the dried milky juice exuded by Blocking opioid receptors with naloxone (see below) has lit- incised seed capsules of a species of poppy, Papaver som- tle effect in normal individuals, but in patients suffering from niferum, that is grown in Turkey, India and South-East Asia. Electrical stimulation of Homer refers to it in the Odyssey as ‘nepenthes’, a drug given areas of the brain that are rich in encephalins and opioid recep- to Odysseus and his followers ‘to banish grief or trouble of the tors elicits analgesia which is abolished by naloxone, implying mind’. A number of notably discreditable events, including the Opium Wars, Neuromodulator ensued from the commercial, social, moral and political inter- ests involved in its world-wide trade and use. Much work has gone into synthesizing morphine analogues in the hope of producing a drug with the therapeutic actions of morphine, but without its disadvantages. Morphine was introduced as a ‘non-addictive’ alternative to opium and this in turn was superseded by diamorphine, which was also believed to be non-addicting! Pain • Morphine is effective in the relief of acute left ventricular relief by acupuncture may also be mediated by encephalin failure, via dilatation of the pulmonary vasculature and release, because it is antagonized by naloxone. Narcotic analgesics exert their effects by binding to opioid • Morphine inhibits cough, but codeine is preferred for this receptors. In addition to their involvement in brain function, the opioid Mechanism of action peptides play a neuroendocrine role. Administration in humans Morphine relieves both the perception of pain and the emo- suppresses the pituitary–gonadal and pituitary–adrenal axis tional response to it. High concentrations of Adverse effects opioid peptides are also present in sympathetic ganglia and Certain patients are particularly sensitive to the pharmacolog- the adrenal medulla. These include the very young, the elucidated, but they may play an inhibitory role in the sympa- elderly and those with chronic lung disease, untreated thetic system. Morphine depresses the sensitivity the sensitivity of the receptors decreases, necessitating an of the respiratory centre to carbon dioxide, thus causing a pro- increased dose to produce the same effect (‘tolerance’). Patients with decreased withdrawal of the drug, endogenous opioids are not sufficient respiratory reserve due to asthma, bronchitis, emphysema or to stimulate the insensitive receptors, resulting in a withdrawal hypoxaemia of any cause are more sensitive to the respiratory state characterized by autonomic disturbances, e.
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Thus linezolid 600mg without prescription antibiotics for uti make you sleepy, in the United Kingdom order linezolid cheap antibiotic resistance review, persons on a stable methadone program who have not abused other drugs for 1 yr and who have clear urine drug screening tests regularly are allowed a driving license subject to annual review best 600mg linezolid bacteria jeopardy. However, it should be remembered that users of heroin are also prone to heavy use of other psycho- active drugs, such as cocaine, alcohol, and tranquilizers, which are all dan- gerous when it comes to driving. Thirty-four methadone substitution patients, all of them volunteers, were sub- jected to a battery of psychological tests. Twenty-one of these patients had to be excluded from the study because the toxicological analysis of repeated blood and urine samples revealed the presence (or possibly chronic use) of substances other than methadone. Of the remaining 13 (age range 26 to 42 years, 8 males and 5 females) 6 were selected who, based on the impression of the physicians, could be described as optimal methadone patients. Although some personality scales and psychopathological findings revealed shortcomings for a few of these patients, they could not be regarded as factors ruling out driver fitness, and the authors concluded that under certain conditions, long-term methadone mainte- nance patients under strict medical supervision do not suffer significant driv- ing impairment, providing that no other drugs have been taken. Cocaine and Methamphetamine Although the argument often goes unchallenged in court, all drugs do not, by definition, produce impairment. In fact, low to moderate acute doses of cocaine and amphetamine can be expected to increase positive mood, energy, and alertness, especially in nontolerant individuals (74). For that reason, radar operators and pilots of both Allied and Japanese armies were issued supplies of amphetamine. Many of the performance tasks related to driving can be improved, at least in the laboratory, by treatment with stimu- lants (75). Although the results of one retrospective autopsy study suggest that methamphetamine users seem more likely to be involved in traffic acci- dents (76), a driving simulator study (77) of young people who had taken 374 Wall and Karch ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) showed that basic vehicle control is only moderately affected but risk taking is increased. It seems likely that abrupt discontinuation of either drug in a chronic user could result in driving impairment, but that situation has never been tested (70). Large doses can result in toxic psychosis with symptoms indistinguishable from paranoid schizophrenia, a condition that is extremely unlikely to improve driving per- formance. Sedative Hypnotics Benzodiazepines impair psychomotor performance in nontolerant indi- viduals, generally in a dose-dependent manner. Most of the widely prescribed benzodiazepines increase lateral lane movement and slow response time to a lead car’s change in speed. Several of the benzodiazepines (50 mg of oxazepam, 30 mg of flurazepam, and 2 mg of lormetazepam) predictably impair driving the morning after. Diazepam (15 mg) impaired performance on a clinical test for drunkenness, which comprised 13 tests assessing motor, vestibular, men- tal, and behavioral functioning (78,79). A recent study (80) showed a clear relationship between dose of benzodiazepines and risk of impairment, which the authors believed probably supported a limit for benzodiazepines and driv- ing as low as within the therapeutic range. Acute doses of many benzodiazepines slow response time in simple or choice visual reaction time tests and impair attentional performance and cause deficits that do not result from sedation. In fact, the impairment of sustained attention and vigilance in benzodiazepine users is the direct result of some as yet uncharacterized direct action on perceptual sensitivity (70). Multiple Drug Use Polydrug use is common and can result in complex interactions, with the drugs having additive, antagonistic, or overlapping effects. In a study on alcohol and can- nabis (81), it has been shown that when they are administered together, the result was one of additive impairment. However, in the laboratory setting, simultaneous administra- tion of alcohol and cocaine seems to minimize alcohol-related deficits (75). Over-the-Counter Preparations An increasing number of drugs can now be bought over the counter from pharmacies. The newer nonsedating antihistamines, such as terfenadine and astemizole, generally do not impair driving. However, one study that measured driving performance across differing doses of terfenadine found that performance was impaired at very high doses (240 mg), stressing the need to establish the behavioral effects of drugs over a range of doses (85). The second-generation group of antihistamines is less lipophilic than the pre- vious generation and thus cross the blood–brain barrier less readily, which accounts for the lower levels of sedation observed with the newer drugs. Thus, although the second-generation antihistamines generally produce less seda- tion than first-generation compounds, if therapeutic doses are exceeded, the so-called nonsedating antihistamines become sedating and can impair driving. Assessment in the Field by Police In the United Kingdom, if a police officer stops a driver, for whatever reason, and believes the driver is unfit to drive, it is highly likely that a road- side breath test will be conducted. That is not the case in the United States, where field breath testing is only permitted in some states, and then only for drivers under the age of 21 years (22). Stopping a vehicle is a seizure, but it may be reasonable if the police officer has a justifiable suspicion that an offense is being committed.
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