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Art therapy can be a particularly useful treatment tool for children, who often have limited language and Chartrand, Sabra. Beyond its use in mental health treatment, art therapy is also employed as an adjunct (or complementary) thera- py to traditional medicine for the treatment of biologically based diseases and conditions. Art therapy has been used in the healing process to relieve Art therapy stress and develop coping mechanisms, in an effort to The use of art to express feelings, emotions, and treat both the physical and mental needs of the patient. Although art therapy has traditionally centered on visual mediums (paintings, sculptures, drawings, etc. It is a two-part process, involving both the cre- ation of art and the discovery of its meaning. Rooted in Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung’s theories of the sub- Benefits conscious and unconscious,art therapy is based on the • Self-discovery. At its most successful, art therapy trig- premise that visual symbols and images are the most ac- gers an emotional catharsis (a sense of relief and well- cessible and natural form of communication to the being through the recognition and acknowledgement of human experience. The resulting artwork is then re- can build confidence and nurture feelings of self-worth. The Personal fulfillment comes from both the creative and analysis of the artwork typically enables a patient to gain the analytical components of the process. Art therapy can help individuals visual- to work through these issues in a constructive manner. Chronic stress can be for these activities, an important feature of effective talk harmful to both mind and body. It can weaken and therapy is that the patient/artist, not the therapist, direct damage the immune system, cause insomnia and de- the interpretation of their artwork. When used alone or in combination with tion of specific types of mental illness or traumatic other relaxation techniques such as guided imagery, art events. In the late 19th century, French psychiatrists Am- therapy can be a potent stress reliever. Art therapy ies on the visual characteristics of and symbolism in the can also help individuals cope with pain and promote artwork of the mentally ill. They found that there were physiological healing by identifying and working recurring themes and visual elements in the drawings of through anger and resentment issues and other emo- patients with specific types of mental illness. Art and healing: using expressive art to heal situations which they must interpret, thus projecting their your body, mind, and spirit. The test subject describes his or her reactions to elaborate inkblots presented on a se- ries of ten cards. Responses are interpreted with atten- Assessment, psychological tion to three factors: what parts or parts of each inkblot the The assessment of personality variables. In this test, the subject ods fall into one of three categories: observational meth- is shown a series of pictures, each of which can be inter- ods, personality inventories, or projective techniques. Responses tend to reflect a person’s Observational assessment is performed by a trained problems, motives, preoccupations, and interpersonal professional either in the subject’s natural setting (such skills. Projective tests require skilled, trained examiners, as a classroom), an experimental setting, or during an in- and the reliability of these tests is difficult to establish due terview. Assessments may vary widely dard agenda, or unstructured, allowing the subject to de- among different examiners. Scoring systems for particular termine much of what is discussed and in what order. Expectations of the observer, conveyed directly or See also Personality inventory; Rorschach technique through body language and other subtle cues, may influ- ence how the interviewee performs and how the observer Further Reading records and interprets his or her observations. Personality inventories consist of questionnaires on Personality and Ability: The Personality Assessment System. One taking in new information and incorporating it into exist- problem with personality inventories is that people may ing ways of thinking about the world.
Their abundance and hypervariability make them ideal markers for the identification of an indi- vidual discount super levitra 80 mg with visa what causes erectile dysfunction cure. As yet best order super levitra generic erectile dysfunction drugs online, it is unclear how useful this tool will be in the forensic setting (see Subheadings 5 generic 80mg super levitra overnight delivery erectile dysfunction doctor milwaukee. The technique is best suited to discrete samples, such as hairs without roots and fecal material, and is not ideal for mixtures of body fluids, particularly when the complainant’s body fluid is likely to be present in larger quantities than that of the assailant (Tully, G. Therefore, in sexual offenses, the selection of material to be analyzed by this technique is limited and its use needs careful consideration. The forensic science laboratory must be notified when it is alleged that people who are closely related have been involved in a sexual offense, because their profiles will have greater similarity than profiles from individuals picked at random, and further differentiating tests may need to be performed. Method of Sampling All areas of unwashed skin that have been licked, kissed, sucked, bitten, or ejaculated on by either the assailant or the complainant must be sampled. There- fore, when dealing with an assault conducted by an unknown assailant, con- sideration should be given to sampling marks or injuries on the skin that the complainant attributes to direct contact by the offender. However, the prob- lem with this type of sampling is there is considerable lack of understanding about issues of transfer and persistence (24). Consequently, speculative skin swabbing in the absence of visible marks or injuries is not recommended. Although several techniques, including the use of surgical gauze pads (25) and cigarette papers (26), have been employed to recover saliva and other trace evidence from the skin with variable success, the use of sterile swabs is the most widely used technique that has received international endorsement (27). If the skin appears moist, the stain should be retrieved on dry swabs, which are then placed in sheaths without transport medium. When using this tech- nique, sterile water is used to wet completely the cotton tip of the first swab. The tip of the swab is then rolled over the area of skin using circular motions while rotating the swab on its long axis to ensure maximum contact between 72 Rogers and Newton the skin and the swab. Then, a second dry swab is rolled over the same area to absorb the water left on the skin by the initial swab and collect any remaining cells. Minimal pressure should be applied to prevent exfoliation of the patient’s own epithelial cells. The forensic practitioner should use as many swabs as necessary to remove any visible stain (repeating wet swab followed by dry swab). This advice must be interpreted cautiously, because a study by Santucci and colleagues found that although many creams and ointments fluoresced when exposed to a Wood’s lamp (wavelength 360 nm), none of the 28 semen samples examined did (31). In addition, other authors have com- mented that detergents, lubricants (particularly those that contain petroleum jelly), and milk also fluoresce (32). However, when semen stains are exposed to a high-intensity light source of variable wavelengths (e. A recent experiment by Marshall and colleagues found that semen from a single donor could be detected on skin using several excitation wavelengths (emitted by a Poliray®) and emission filter combinations (34). Optimal results were obtained using 415 nm ± 40 nm band-pass filter and a 475 high-pass and 505 band-pass ± 40 nm interference filter. More research must be conducted using semen from multiple donors and isolating semen from other fluorescing contaminants, such as oils. Forensic Analysis The most common reason for forensic analysis of skin swabs is after licking, kissing, or biting of the skin. Forensic analysis for other body fluids or exogenous substances is considered elsewhere in the chapter. Detection of Saliva The only means of confirming the presence of saliva on the skin is by detecting the enzyme amylase. However, in practice, this enzyme is not usu- ally found in high enough concentrations in samples removed from the skin (Austin, C. Persistence Data There is only limited information available regarding the persistence of body fluids and cellular material on the skin of the living. This study showed that the amount of recoverable mate- rial diminished with time; hence, it is prudent to sample the relevant body areas as soon as possible after the offense. Medical Evidence On average, 40% of complainants of sexual assaults will have no gen- eral injuries (37–41). Of those who are injured, most will have only minor injuries, which will fade rapidly or heal without a trace (37,38).
Although initially specified in terms of the two prisoners order super levitra mastercard erectile dysfunction nursing interventions, similar payoff matrices can be used to predict behavior in many different types of dilemmas involving two or more parties and including choices of helping and not helping order discount super levitra line erectile dysfunction statistics, working and loafing order 80mg super levitra with visa erectile dysfunction drugs recreational use, and paying and not paying debts. For instance, we can use the prisoner‘s dilemma to help us understand roommates living together in a house who might not want to contribute to the housework. Yet if neither of them makes an effort to clean the house (the cooperative choice), the house becomes a mess and they will both be worse off. Find and share with your class some examples of advertisements that make use of classical conditioning to create positive attitudes toward products. Should parents use both punishment as well as reinforcement to discipline their children? Think of a social dilemma other than one that has been discussed in this chapter, and explain people’s behavior in it in terms of principles of learning. Total golf: A behavioral approach to lowering your score and getting more out of your game. The effects of music in advertising on choice behavior: A classical conditioning approach. Positive and negative evaluative conditioning effects of brand placements in music videos. Fear appeals motivate acceptance of action recommendations: Evidence for a positive bias in the processing of persuasive messages. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(5), 650–664; Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The dynamics of persuasion: Communication and attitudes in the 21st century (2nd ed. A meta-analysis of fear appeals: Implications for effective public health campaigns. Positive and negative evaluative conditioning effects of brand placements in music videos. International Journal of Information & Communication Technology Education, 3(4), 34–49. Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Undermining children’s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the “overjustification” hypothesis. Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A’s, praise, and other bribes. Psychologist Edward Thorndike developed the law of effect: the idea that responses that are reinforced are “stamped in‖ by experience and thus occur more frequently, whereas responses that are punishing are “stamped out‖ and subsequently occur less frequently. Skinner (1904–1990) expanded on Thorndike‘s ideas to develop a set of principles to explain operant conditioning. Positive reinforcement strengthens a response by presenting a something pleasant after the response, and negative reinforcement strengthens a response by reducing or removing something unpleasant. Positive punishment weakens a response by presenting something unpleasant after the response, whereas negative punishment weakens a response by reducing or removing something pleasant. Partial-reinforcement schedules are determined by whether the reward is presented on the basis of the time that elapses between rewards (interval) or on the basis of the number of responses that the organism engages in (ratio), and by whether the reinforcement occurs on a regular (fixed) or unpredictable (variable) schedule. Not all learning can be explained through the principles of classical and operant conditioning. Insight is the sudden understanding of the components of a problem that makes the solution apparent, and latent learning refers to learning that is not reinforced and not demonstrated until there is motivation to do so. Learning by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of those behaviors is known as observational learning. Learning theories can and have been applied to change behaviors in many areas of everyday life. Some advertising uses classical conditioning to associate a pleasant response with a product. Rewards are frequently and effectively used in education but must be carefully designed to be contingent on performance and to avoid undermining interest in the activity.
Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care purchase 80mg super levitra visa erectile dysfunction caused by spinal stenosis, 7th Edition 80 mg super levitra for sale erectile dysfunction and age. Horvath is scheduled to learn how to perform wound care for her daughter at home but has missed every planned teaching session thus far generic 80mg super levitra fast delivery erectile dysfunction what is it. Assess your personal blend of the skills nurses vath works the evening shift and has a babysit- need: cognitive, technical, interpersonal, and ter stay with her children from immediately ethical/legal. What skills do you need to develop to meet the needs of those entrusted to your care? How might the nurse use blended nursing skills to respond to this patient situation? How might the school of nursing use the nursing process to address one or more of these problems? Do you as a nursing student have an obligation to address the health prob- lems you encounter? What intellectual, technical, interpersonal, How did you reach your ﬁnal decision? Relate and/or ethical/legal competencies are most the method you used in your life to the mod- likely to bring about the desired outcome? How might this knowledge help you to understand your responses to patients with different personal- ity traits? Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Which of the following sources of patient data is usually the primary and best source? Smith is admitted to the hospital with patient are known as: complaints of left-sided weakness and difﬁculty a. Brain scan shows evidence of a clot in the nurse–patient interview does the nurse gather middle cerebral artery. Which of the following nurse–patient ted to the hospital with complaints of positioning facilitates an easy exchange of difﬁculty urinating, bloody urine, and burning information? Focusing on altered patterns of elimination their chairs are at right angles to each common in the elderly other, 1 foot apart. If the patient is in bed, the nurse sits in a patient’s sexual history chair placed at a 45-degree angle to the bed. If the patient is in bed, the nurse stands at validate data on the patient’s record the side of the bed. Nursing assessments duplicate medical becomes very tired, but there are still questions assessments. Jones if she objects to your database for problem solving and care interviewing her husband to obtain the planning. Anderson, age 50, is admitted to your focus of Gordon’s functional health patterns unit with the diagnosis of scleroderma. Elimination, activity, sleep, and sexuality occur during the preparatory phase of the are components of the assessment and data nursing interview? The nurse assesses the patient’s comfort hands before signing a consent for surgery. A patient feels nauseated after eating his reading current and past records and reports. A patient complains of being cold and describe the unique focus of nursing requests an extra blanket. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. When the nurse compares the current status of a patient to the initial assessment performed 1. Place the following actions performed by a during the admitting process, he/she is nurse during a patient interview in the order in performing a(n) type of which they would most likely occur.
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