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It places contraception use both within the general context of social norms and also within the context of the relationship purchase brahmi 60 caps without a prescription symptoms xanax. In summary These decision-making models regard contraceptive use as resulting from an analysis of the relevant variables cheap brahmi 60 caps on-line treatment anal fissure. However order brahmi american express treatment 4 autism, they vary in the extent to which they attempt to place the individual’s cognitive state within a broader context, both of the relationship and the social world. Integrating developmental and decision-making approaches to contraception use Developmental models emphasize behaviour and describe reliable contraception use as the end product of a transition through a series of stages. These models do not examine the psychological factors, which may speed up or delay this transition. In contrast, decision-making models emphasize an individual’s cognitions and, to a varying degree, place these cognitions within the context of the relationship and social norms. Perhaps these cognitions could be used to explain the behavioural stages described by the developmental models. They defined these factors as follows: Background factors 1 Age: evidence suggests that young women’s contraceptive use increases with age (e. Although these background factors may influence contraceptive use, whether this effect is direct or through the effect of other factors such as knowledge and attitudes is unclear. Intrapersonal factors 1 Knowledge: Whitley and Schofield (1986) analysed the results of 25 studies of contraceptive use and reported a correlation of 0. For example, Cvetkovich and Grote (1981) reported that of their sample 10 per cent did not believe that they could become pregnant the first time they had sex, and 52 per cent of men and 37 per cent of women could not identify the periods of highest risk in the menstrual cycle. In addition, Lowe and Radius (1982) reported that 40 per cent of their sample did not know how long sperm remained viable. Negative attitudes included beliefs that ‘it kills spontaneity’, ‘it’s too much trouble to use’ and that there are possible side effects. In addition, carrying contraceptives around is often believed to be associated with being promiscuous (e. This research assumes that certain aspects of individuals are consistent over time and research has reported associations between the following types of personality: s conservatism and sex role have been shown to be negatively related to contraceptive use (e. Interpersonal factors Research highlights a role for characteristics of the following significant others: 1 Partner: facets of the relationship may influence contraception use including duration of relationship, intimacy, type of relationship (e. They included interpersonal and situational factors as a means to place the individual’s cognitions within the context of the relationship and the broader social world. These variables can be applied individually or alternatively incorporated into models. In particular, social cognition models emphasize cognitions about the individual’s social world, particularly their normative beliefs. However, whether asking an individual about the relationship really accesses the interaction between two people is questionable. For example, is the belief that ‘I decided to go on the pill because I had talked it over with my partner’ a statement describing the interaction between two individuals, or is it one individual’s cognitions about that interaction? Although sometimes ignored, this research is also relevant to other sexually transmitted diseases. Since then, health education programmes have changed in their approach to preventing the spread of the virus. For example, early campaigns emphasized monogamy or at least cutting down on the number of sexual partners. Campaigns also promoted non- penetrative sex and suggested alternative ways to enjoy a sexual relationship. As a result, research has examined the prerequisites to safer sex and condom use in an attempt to develop successful health promotion campaigns. Richard and van der Pligt (1991) examined condom use among a group of Dutch teenagers and report that 50 per cent of those with multiple partners were consistent condom users. It reported that 16 per cent of these used condoms on their own, 13 per cent had used condoms while on the pill, 2 per cent had used condoms in combination with spermicide and 3 per cent had used condoms together with a diaphragm. Overall only 30 per cent of their sample had ever used condoms, while 70 per cent had not. Fife-Schaw and Breakwell (1992) undertook an overview of the literature on condom use among young people and found that between 24 per cent and 58 per cent of 16- to 24-year-olds had used a condom during their most recent sexual encounter. In terms of their condom use with their current partner, 25 per cent reported always using a condom with their current male partner, 12 per cent reported always using a condom with their current female partner, 27 per cent reported some- times/never using a condom with their male partner and 38 per cent reported some- times/never using a condom with their female partner. In terms of their non-current partner, 30 per cent had had unprotected sex with a man and 34 per cent had had unprotected sex with a woman.

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Such an unequal sharing of the pair of bonding electrons results in a polar covalent bond cheap brahmi line treatment 8mm kidney stone. When chlorine is bonded to carbon purchase brahmi 60caps mastercard treatment wpw, the bonding electrons are attracted more strongly to chlorine buy brahmi 60 caps without prescription medications ending in lol. In other words, in a polar covalent bond, the electron pair is not shared equally. This results in a small partial positive charge on the carbon, and an equal but opposite partial negative charge on the chlorine. A bond length is the average distance between the nuclei of the atoms that are covalently bonded together. A bond angle is the angle formed by the interaction of two covalent bonds at the atom common to both. The overlap of atomic orbitals is called hybridization, and the resulting atomic orbitals are called hybrid orbitals. Pi bonds never occur alone without the bonded atoms also being joined by a s bond. Therefore, a double bond consists of a s bond and a p bond, whereas a triple bond consists of a s bond and two p bonds. A sigma overlap occurs when there is one bonding interaction that results from the overlap of two s orbitals or an s orbital overlaps a p orbital or two p orbitals overlap head to head. A p overlap occurs only when two bonding interactions result from the sideways overlap of two parallel p 2. Sigma overlap of a s orbital Pi overlap of two parallel p orbitals with a p orbital Let us consider the formation of s overlap in the hydrogen molecule (H2), from two hydrogen atoms. The overlap of two s orbitals, one from each of two hydrogen atoms, forms a s bond. Since s orbitals are spherical in shape, two hydrogen atoms can approach one another from any direction resulting in a strong s bond. Elements with higher electro- negativity values have greater attraction for bonding electrons. The difference in electronegativity between two atoms can be used to measure the polarity of the bonding between them. The greater the difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms, the greater is the polarity of the bond. If the difference is great enough, electrons are transferred from the less electronegative atom to the more electronegative one, hence an ionic bond is formed. Only if the two atoms have exactly the same electronegativity is a nonpolar bond formed. Electronegativity increases from left to right and bottom to top in the periodic table as shown below (electronegativity is shown in parentheses). The word dipole means two poles, the separated partial positive and negative charges. A polar molecule results when a molecule contains polar bonds in an unsymmetrical arrangement. Nonpolar molecules whose atoms have equal or nearly equal electronegativities have zero or very small dipole moments, as do molecules that have polar bonds but the molecular geometry is symmetrical, allowing the bond dipoles to cancel each other. The shared electron pairs between two atoms are not necessarily shared equally and this leads to a bond polarity. Atoms,such as nitrogen, oxygen and halogens, that are more electronegative than carbon have a tendency to have partial negative charges. Atoms such as carbon and hydrogen have a tendency to be more neutral or have partial positive charges. Thus, bond polarity arises from the difference in electronegativities of two atoms participating in the bond formation. This also depends on the attraction forces between molecules, and these interactions are called intermolecular interactions or forces. There are three types of nonbonding intermolecular interaction: dipole– dipole interactions, van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding. These interactions increase significantly as the molecular weights increase, and also increase with increasing polarity of the molecules. As a result of dipole–dipole interactions, polar molecules are held together more strongly than nonpolar molecules.

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There are no abnormalities to find in the cardiovascular discount brahmi uk treatment tinnitus, respiratory or abdominal systems order brahmi 60 caps without a prescription medications list template. Addison’s disease might be linked with respiratory problems through adrenal involvement by metastases or tuberculosis buy generic brahmi 60 caps on line medications dictionary. This can be confirmed by measurement of serum and urine osmolarities to show serum dilution while the urine is concentrated. Fluid restriction to 750 mL daily produced an increase in serum sodium to 128 mmol/L with improvement in the confusion and weakness. Such treatment often produces a response in terms of shrinkage of the tumour, improved quality of life and increased survival. Small-cell undifferentiated carcinomas of the lung are fast-growing tumours, usually unresectable at presentation. Her 20-year-old son has asthma and she has tried his salbutamol inhaler on two or three occasions but found it to be of no real benefit. She has tested herself on her son’s peak flow meter at home and she has obtained values of about 100 L/min. On direct question- ing she says that the shortness of breath tends to be worse on lying down but there are no other particular precipitating factors or variations through the day. There is a generalized wheeze heard all over the chest but no other abnormalities. It is similar in both inspiration and expiration as shown in the flow volume loop (Fig. The spirometry trace of volume against time in such cases shows a straight line of the same reduced flow right up to the vital capacity. On examination, this airway narrowing is likely to produce a single monophonic wheeze which may be heard over a wide area of the chest. Differential diagnosis of rigid large-airway obstruction The situation may easily be confused with asthma if the peak flow and the wheezing are accepted uncritically. The wheezing in asthma comes from many narrowed airways of different calibre and mass, and the wheezes are often described as polyphonic. The fixed flow in inspiration and expiration in this case suggest a rigid large-airway nar- rowing. If the narrowing can vary a little with pressure changes, then the pattern will depend on the site of the narrowing (Figs 99. If it is outside the thoracic cage, as in a laryngeal lesion, it will be more evident on inspiration. Large-airway narrowing can be caused by inflammatory conditions such as tuberculosis or Wegener’s granulomatosis, damage from prolonged endotracheal intubation or by extrinsic pressure such as a retrosternal goitre. The great majority of symp- tomatic lung tumours are visible on plain chest X-ray but central lesions in large airways may not be seen. In this case, fibre-optic bronchoscopy showed a carcinoma in the lower trachea reducing the lumen to a small orifice. Treatment was by radiotherapy with oral steroids to cover any initial swelling of the tumour which might increase the degree of obstruction in the trachea. She has had two previous admissions to hospital within the last 6 months, once for an overdose of heroin and once for an infection in the left arm. The heart sounds are normal and there are no abnormal findings on examination of the respiratory system. The respiratory rate is18/min, jugular venous pressure is not raised, there are no new heart murmurs and oxygen saturation is 97 per cent on room air. This complication is not unusual in intravenous drug users and can be associated with sepsis although there was no sign of this on the initial investigations. She has been treated for the thrombosis and for alcohol withdrawal and her opiate use. The deep vein thrombosis would have predisposed her to a pulmonary embolus, but the normal respiratory rate, lack of elevation of jugular venous pressure and normal oxygen saturation make this unlikely. As an intravenous drug user she might have taken more drugs even under supervision in hospital. The tachycardia and lowered blood pressure raise the possibility of haemorrhage which might be precipitated by the anticoagulants.

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The main its use is limited by severe postural hypotension generic 60caps brahmi free shipping treatment endometriosis, especially adverse effect on chronic use is cough; losartan purchase generic brahmi from india medicine 60, an following the first dose order cheapest brahmi and brahmi medicine in ancient egypt. Effects on vascular obstruction (Chapter 36), and is useful in men with mild event rates are unknown. Adverse effects • First-dose hypotension and postural hypotension are adverse effects. Neither spironolactone nor the more selective (and much more expensive) eplerenone is licensed for treating essential hyper- tension. They are used to treat Conn’s syndrome, but are also Pharmacokinetics effective in essential hypertension (especially low renin essen- Doxazosin has an elimination half-life of approximately 10–12 tial hypertension) and are recommended as add-on treatment hours and provides acceptably smooth 24-hour control if used for resistant hypertension by the British Hypertension Society once daily. Long-term high-dose use not understood to severe hypertension: causes systemic lupus-like syndrome in β-antagonist in combination susceptible individuals with diuretic. Retains a place in severe hypertension during pregnancy α-Methyldopa Taken up by noradrenergic Hypertension during Drowsiness (common); depression; nerve terminals and converted pregnancy. Occasionally hepatitis; immune haemolytic anaemia; to α-methylnoradrenaline, useful in patients who drug fever which is released as a false cannot tolerate other drugs transmitter. Co-administration of a β-adrenoceptor tension unresponsive to other drugs, combined with a antagonist is usually required. Prolonged use is precluded β-adrenoceptor antagonist to block reflex tachycardia and a by the development of cyanide toxicity and its use requires loop diuretic because of the severe fluid retention it causes. It used to be widely used as part of ‘triple ther- Coombs’ test is also not uncommon: rarely this is associated apy’ with a β-adrenoceptor antagonist and a diuretic in with haemolytic anaemia. Other immune effects include drug patients with severe hypertension, but has been rendered fever and hepatitis. Its mechanism is uptake into central neu- largely obsolete by better tolerated drugs such as Ca2 antag- rones and metabolism to false transmitter (α-methylnor- onists (see above). Large doses are associated with a lupus- adrenaline) which is an α2-adrenoceptor agonist. Moxonidine is another centrally acting drug: it acts for severe hypertension in this setting although nifedipine is on imidazoline receptors and is said to be better tolerated than now preferred by many obstetric physicians. Her blood pressure is events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding 196/86mmHg. She had had a small stroke two years previ- perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethi- ously, which was managed at home, and from which she azide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes made a complete recovery. She smokes ten cigarettes/day, does hypertensive patients randomized to doxazosin vs chlorthalidone – not drink any alcohol and takes no drugs. The remainder of The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent the examination is unremarkable. This patient’s blood pressure on two further hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting occasions is 176/84 and 186/82mmHg, respectively. Journal of the American Medical Association harm has been done already) and the suggestion of drug 2002; 288: 2981–97. Oxford: Blackwell Science, (e) An α1-blocker would be a sensible first choice of drug, 1994. Central imidazoline (I1) receptors as targets of cen- (f) Aspirin treatment should be considered. Comment Treating elderly patients with systolic hypertension reduces their excess risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. The absolute benefit of treatment is greatest in elderly people (in whom events are common). Treatment is particularly desirable as this patient made a good recovery from a stroke. She was strongly discouraged from smoking (by explaining that this would almost immediately reduce the risk of a fur- ther vascular event), but she was unable to stop. Continued smoking puts her at increased risk of stroke and she agreed to take bendroflumethiazide 2. Ischaemic heart disease is nearly always caused by atheroma (Chapter 27) in one or more of the coronary arteries. The object of defining these factors is to improve them in haemodynamics can reduce angina.

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In health discount brahmi 60caps online symptoms 11 dpo, creatinine clearance reflects glomerular filtration rate purchase brahmi line medications with sulfur, normal serum levels being 50–120 micromol/l generic brahmi 60 caps mastercard medicine 751 m. As creatinine clearance is highest in the afternoon (Sladen 1994), accurate measurement necessitates 24-hour urine collections. Prerenal failure Prerenal failure occurs where renal hypoperfusion causes failure of renal function. Children are especially prone to hypovolaemia from diarrhoea and vomiting (Stewart & Barnett 1997). Since prerenal failure is caused by hypovolaemia rather than tubular damage, urinary sedimentation remains normal (Joynes 1996). As aldosterone increases renal reabsorption of sodium and water, urinary sodium can fall below 20 mmol/l (McHugh 1997), while urine osmolality rises (Joynes 1996). Intensive care nursing 314 In proportion to tissue weight, renal blood flow normally exceeds all other tissues except the carotid body (Ervine & Milroy 1997); however, renal tissue is especially susceptible to ischaemia. Damage to tubular epithelium from ischaemia causes cell dysfunction, allowing diffusion of filtered solute into interstitial tissue (Ervine & Milroy 1997). Intratubular accumulation of cellular debris further impairs tubular flow (Ervine & Milroy 1997), accelerating progression to intrarenal failure. Damage from nephrotoxicity is usually confined to epithelial layers; the epithelium readily regenerates, making recovery rapid (Carlson 1995). Ischaemia or inflammation damages deeper tissue; if basement membrane damage occurs, regeneration is unlikely, leading to chronic renal failure (Carlson 1995). Acute tubular necrosis used to be attributed to death of renal tubule cells, but pathology is more complex: while the problem is ‘acute’ and affects tubules, it is caused by ischaemia, rather than (necessarily) necrosis, of tubular cells. Hypoxia disrupts cell membranes (see Chapter 23) causing intracellular oedema and releasing vasoactive chemicals. Preglomerular vasoconstriction reduces glomerular perfusion, and so glomerular filtration. Widespread tubule intracellular oedema causes physical compression of lumens, obstructing flow of any filtrate produced. Medullary damage from intrarenal failure reduces sodium reabsorption in the Loop of Henle, so that urinary sodium levels are high (above 40 mmol/litre (McHugh 1997)). Hypernatraemia in the macula densa activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone cascade, further reducing glomerular blood flow and filtration. Intratubular sedimentation from cells rapidly obstructs flow, and the resulting retrograde pressure impedes filtration and can cause nephritis. Tubular cells readily regenerate so that renal replacement therapy buys time until recovery. However, as with other body tissue, reperfusion injury (see Chapter 23) from calcium and oxygen radicals can reverse recovery. Glomerulonephritis, inflammation of glomerular basement membrane, causes increased glomerular permeability. Large particles, such as erythrocytes and plasma proteins, may be filtered (Joynes 1996) or, with cellular debris, obstruct tubules, causing further back pressure (and damage) to glomeruli. Caused by obstruction between the kidneys and meatus (such as bladder tumours, renal/bladder calculi or an enlarged prostate), the resulting back pressure reduces filtration (Carlson 1995) and can cause intrarenal damage. As renal function fails, the volume of urine falls, while serum urea and creatinine levels rise. As damaged tubules begin to recover function and new (immature) tubule cells grow, filtration improves and obstruction to flow is removed. As selection tubular reabsorption of fluid and solutes is poor, large volumes of dilute urine are passed (up to 5 litres/day). Urea and creatinine levels fall, urine volumes return to normal, and electrolyte balance is restored. The main complications to body systems which result from renal failure are: Cardiovascular : ■ pericarditis ■ hyperkalaemia ■ acidosis ■ dysrhythmias ■ anaemia ■ hypertension (from renin) Nervous system : ■ confusion (from uraemia) ■ twitching ■ coma Intensive care nursing 316 Respiratory : ■ acidosis ■ pulmonary oedema ■ hiccough ■ compensatory tachypnoea Gut : ■ nausea ■ diarrhoea ■ vomiting Metabolic : ■ electrolyte disorders (see above) ■ toxicity from active drug metabolites ■ vitamin D deficiency Passively and actively, peritubular reabsorption of sodium in exchange for potassium and/or hydrogen ions maintains homeostasis, and so renal failure usually causes electrolyte imbalance: potassium : hyperkalaemia often occurs, although polyuria can cause hypokalaemia sodium : hyponatraemia may occur, especially with polyuric failure hydrogen : failure to excrete hydrogen ions causes metabolic acidosis Hypocalcaemia, hypophosphataemia and hypomagnesaemia can also occur (Carlson 1995). Many of these electrolytes affect cardiac and other muscle cell conduction so that dysrhythmias and generalised muscle twitching/weakness may occur.

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