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Broad regional differences are also apparent regarding the use of fungi order discount premarin womens health 7 minute workout, which are premarin 0.625mg for sale women's health journal primary care, of course generic premarin 0.625mg without a prescription menstrual cup comparison, not members of the plant kingdom. Evidence for the use of fungi for medicinal purposes is rare in much of western and northern Europe, but more is known about their use in south-eastern Europe. A study of fungi in Hungarian folk medicine, for instance, found that Judas’s ear (Auricularia auricula-judae) was used to cure eye complaints by placing it against the eye, and various puffballs (Lycoperdons) were thought to be efficacious against bleeding and diarrhoea. The potency of plants was thought to be influenced by their being picked and administered according to the waxing and waning of the moon. On a more sophisticated level, herbs were associated with certain planets and used to counteract diseases generated by opposing planets. Plants were also picked on specific religious days depending on regional traditions. Southern Czechs used to place St John’s wort on their beds on St John’s Eve in the hope that the saint would lay upon it at night and bless the herb with cura- tive powers. So remedies are taken in increasing or decreasing doses for 9-day periods followed by 9 days without treatment. A recent study of medicinal plants in the Pallars region of Catalonia found that 109 of 410 herbs were administered in such novenes. In the moun- tainous Molise region of central southern Italy, for example, the practice of winding old man’s beard (Clematis vitalba) seven times around the necks of nervous sheep has been recently recorded. Within family groups, women were usually the main practi- tioners and principal repositories of healing knowledge. Recent studies have found that they make up most of the remaining few traditional folk healers. Women were thought to possess natural abilities for dealing with certain problems, particularly those associated with childbirth and children. As literacy levels were much lower among women than men in much of Europe, until the advent of compulsory education, women were also more associated with oral traditions of medical knowledge, such as obtaining healing gifts from the fairy realm. Furthermore, the fact that, until the late nineteenth century, women were largely excluded from licensed medical practice meant that as healers they were systematically classified both at the time and by later historians as belonging to unofficial categories of medicine, labelled variously as ‘unqualified’, ‘alternative’, ‘casual’, ‘popular’ or ‘folk’. Seventh sons and daughters, for example, were commonly thought to have an innate healing ability, as were those born in a caul. The tradition of charming, an integral aspect of European folk medicine based primarily on verbal or written charms containing biblical passages, apocrypha and stories of mythical encounters, was passed down through families from generation to generation, sometimes contrasexually, in other words from male to female and vice versa. Although the folk medicine of some societies on other continents has been, and still is, a purely oral tradition, the history of its development and nature in Europe cannot be understood without recognition of the influence of print culture. With the advent of print in the late fifteenth century, and the significant growth of literacy across much of northern and western Europe in the following centuries, access to medical literature spread far beyond the libraries of the clergy and licensed physicians. The Herbarius, published in Mainz in 1485, was particularly influential, being the source of numerous subsequent Traditional European folk medicine | 33 texts, such as the first printed Polish herbal, Stefan Falimirz’s On Herbs and their Power, published in 1534. The medical recipes and notions of the ancient physicians also found their way into hugely popular manuals containing the ‘secrets’ of the natural world. One of the most influential of these books was falsely attributed to the mediaeval German Dominican friar and scientist Albertus Magnus (about 1193–1280), though most of its contents were culled from Pliny and works alleged to have been written by Aristotle. Le Grand Albert, as it came to be known in France, began to be sold in a cheap format in the eighteenth century, and its spread to French colonies in the Caribbean and Indian Ocean region had a considerable influence on folk medical traditions there. Almanacs published in Estonia between 1731 and 1900 included information about the use of around 55 medicinal plants. As Christian Mangor noted in his Norwegian Lande-apothek (Country Apothecary), first published in 1767 and reprinted numerous times over the next century, such works were important as ‘few can afford medicines from the apothecary, let alone the cost of a doctor’s travel, time, and trouble’. Some authors were also inspired by concerns over the quality of officially prescribed medicines. In the 1760 edition of his Primitive Physic, John Wesley said of the apothecary: ‘perhaps he has not the drug prescribed by the physician, and so puts in its place “what will do as well. Wesley was, of course, the founder of Methodism, and we see elsewhere the evangelical Protestant impulse for self- help in bodily as well as spiritual care. In Estonia, for example, several German pastors produced influential health guides for the common people, such as Otto Jannau’s Country People’s Home Doctor or a Short Guide how Every Reasonable Person in His House and Family Can Help if Somebody is Sick, but Doctor is Unavailable (1857). In nineteenth- and twentieth-century France numerous editions of the cheap self-help guide Le Médecin des pauvres 34 | Traditional medicine contained traditional healing charms.

Using clean (rather than sterile) gloves for suction similarly appears based on anecdotal claims that infection rates are not significantly increased discount premarin 0.625 mg on-line menopause images. Gloves of any sort protect (universal precautions) nurses cheap premarin 0.625 mg fast delivery women's health clinic uw, and clean gloves are both quicker to put on and cheaper; with gloved hands not touching catheter tips buy cheap premarin 0.625 mg line women's health center in waco, infection risks appear small, but any substantive evidence to support this is lacking (Odell et al. Ventilation continues during catheter insertion and so catheters should be advanced more carefully to reduce trauma (passes should not be slowed so much that patient discomfort is increased). Concerns that they create reservoirs for microbial colonisation appear to be unfounded (Adams et al. Nurses’ concerns that closed circuit catheters may be more difficult to manipulate (Graziano et al. Closed circuit systems can be cost effective if they replace sufficient numbers of disposable items. Most manufacturers recommend replacement after 24 hours; Quirke (1998) found 48-hour changes safe and suggests that further research may support weekly changes; however, staff should remember their legal liability if flouting manufacturer’s recommendations. Widespread practice of saline instillation to loosen secretions has little support beyond anecdotal literature. Mucus is not water soluble and so will not easily mix with saline; encrustations on dentures can be difficult to remove after soaking overnight, and a few seconds contact with saline seems unlikely to significantly loosen airway encrustations. Ackerman (1993) found saline instillation reduced PaO2, possibly from bronchospasm or creating a fluid barrier to gas perfusion. However Ackerman’s methodology alternated use and non-use of saline in the same patients, ignoring possible late complications of consolidation through inadequate removal of mucus. Temperature differentials between cold fluids and airways may trigger bronchospasm so that warming fluids (from hand heat) may reduce complications (Gunderson & Stoeckle 1995). There may be individual cases where saline is indicated, but what those indications currently are remains unclear. Substantial research evidence is needed before saline instillation can be recommended. Nebulisation produces smaller droplets which should reach distal bronchioles, but Asmundsson et al. Hyperinflation Hyperinflation (‘bagging’, to loosen secretions) can be achieved with manual (‘rebreathe’) bags or through most modern ventilators (e. Muscle recoil following hyperinflation mimics the cough reflex and so loosens secretions. It also potentially ■ removal raises intrathoracic pressure ■ removal reduces cardiac return ■ causes (mechanical) vagal stimulation (resulting in bradycardia) ■ causes barotrauma. Manual rebreathe bags are available in various sizes; adult systems should include ■ pressure escape valves ■ oxygen reservoirs if patients normally receive high concentration oxygen ■ 2-litre bags (ideal hyperinflation volume is 1. Relative merits of manual and mechanical hyperinflation remain debated (Robson 1998), but ventilator-controlled hyperinflation leaves nurses’ hands free while ensuring hyperinflation volume is both controlled and measured (limiting barotrauma). Children’s tracheas are smaller and so where 1 mm of oedema might cause slight hoarseness in adults, it would obstruct three-quarters of a child’s airway (Marley 1998). Despite the frequency and long history of mechanical ventilation, many dilemmas of nursing management remain unresolved, influenced more by tradition or small-scale (often inhouse) studies than substantial research and meta- analysis. No aspect of airway management should be considered routine; as with all other aspects of care, frequent assessment enables the individualisation of care in order to meet the patient’s needs. Overviews are usually best obtained from books, but many articles usefully pursue aspects in detail. Wood (1998) provides an extensive literature review on dilemmas of endotracheal suction. Reviewing literature for developing departmental guidelines, McKelvie (1998) gives a reliable overview. Identify those effects that you have observed in your own clinical practice and those from the literature. Lighter sedation ■ enables patients to remain semiconscious, thus reducing psychoses while promoting autonomy ■ reduces hypotensive and cardioinhibitory effects caused by most sedatives Light sedation is a narrow margin between over- and under-sedation. The focus is therefore a nursing one rather than pharmacological, although some widely used sedatives are described.

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What interventions might the nurse employ a stroke that has paralyzed his right side to try to resolve Mr 0.625 mg premarin sale women's health clinic newark ohio. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care discount 0.625 mg premarin otc zoloft menstrual cycle, 7th Edition buy premarin australia womens health reno nv. What would be a successful outcome for All I hear the girls talking about is boys, and I Mr. What intellectual, technical, interpersonal, admits that in the past, once she set a goal and/or ethical/legal competencies are most for herself, she was always able to achieve likely to bring about the desired outcome? Although she has withdrawn from her parents and teachers, she admits that she does know adults she can trust who have been a big sup- port to her in the past. Identify pertinent patient data by placing a single underline beneath the objective data in the case study and a double underline beneath the subjective data. Pretend you are performing a nursing but at 5 feet 3 inches and 150 pounds, she is assessment of this patient after the plan of overweight. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. For the purposes of this exercise, develop the one patient goal that demonstrates a direct resolution of the patient problem identified in the nursing diagnosis. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Which of the following statements concern- Circle the letter that corresponds to the best ing interactions with basic human needs is answer for each question. As a person strives to meet basic human that takes place as a result of a response to a needs at each level, stress can serve as stressor? Stress affects all people in their attain- anisms is which of the following systems? Autonomic likely suffering from which of the following stressors on basic human needs? Which of the following reactions would be considered anxiety due to a psychological d. You respond to an approaching examination living, and it increases alertness and percep- with a rapidly beating heart and shaking tual fields. Which of the following phrases best on specific detail, causing all behavior to be illustrates the panic level of anxiety? Narrow perception field learn, concentrates only on the present sit- uation, and often experiences feelings of 11. Defense mechanisms are conscious reactions eral task for a patient adapting to acute and to stressors. Projection occurs when a person’s thoughts or impulses are attributed to another d. Despair tries to give questionable behavior a logical or socially acceptable explanation. Depression Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. As the duration, intensity, or number of stressors increases, a person’s ability to adapt is lessened. A teenager being offered a cigarette by a method of preparing the body to either fight friend off a stressor or run away from it. A person who develops diarrhea while under armed services prolonged stress is said to be experiencing a(n) 5. Introjection Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. A patient bangs his hand on the bed waste products tray in frustration over his rehabilitation 14. Functions under normal conditions and anger over a lack of privacy gives the at rest nurse a box of candy. A patient who continually forgets to calcitonin take his medications complains, “There are too many pills to take. A patient who cannot stop smoking responses to stress, and give an example of becomes a fitness fanatic.

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Integrating the individual with their social context Psychology is traditionally the study of the individual buy premarin 0.625 mg overnight delivery womens health and surgery center. Recently discount premarin on line menstruation underwear, however premarin 0.625 mg with visa breast cancer gene, health psychology has made moves to integrate this individual with their social world. Therefore, health psychologists access either the individuals’ location within their social world via their demographic factors or ask the individuals for their beliefs about the social world. However, these theories could also be used as data, and in the same way that we study the world we could study our theories about the world. Furthermore, changes in theories could also tell us about the way in which we see the world has changed. Do these also tell us something about the changing psychology of the past hundred years? Theories concerning different areas of health psychology are distinct from each other This book has outlined many theories relating to stress, pain and health behaviours, but has not examined parallels within these theories. Perhaps there are patterns within these different theories that reflect ‘umbrella’ changes within health psychology. Perhaps also these changes indicate consistent shifts in the way psychological theory describes the individual. Acknowledging and understanding these assumptions provides the basis of a more critical perspective on research. Findings from research are not taken for granted and theories can be seen within their inherent limitations. However, these assump- tions themselves provide a basis for research – research into how a discipline has changed. In addition, this kind of research can provide insights into how the focus of that discipline (the individual) has also changed. In the same way that sociologists study scientists, biographers study authors and literary theorists study literature, a discipline can also be studied. This paper addresses some of the assumptions in health psychology and dis- cusses the interrelationship between theory, methodology and the psycho- logical individual. This paper examines the changes in psychological theory during the twentieth century and relates them to discussions about risk and responsibility for health and illness. This book explores how both psychological and sociological theory construct the individual through an exploration of methodology, measurement, theory and the construction of boundaries. Case-control design: this involves taking a group of subjects who show a particular characteristic (e. Condition: experimental studies often involve allocating subjects to different conditions; for example, information versus no information, relaxation versus no relaxation, active drug versus placebo versus control condition. Cross-sectional design: a study is described as being cross-sectional if the different variables are measured at the same time as each other. Dependent variable: the characteristic that appears to change as a result of the independent variable; for example, changing behavioural intentions (the independent variable) causes a change in behaviour (the dependent variable). Experimental design: this involves a controlled study in which variables are mani- pulated in order to specifically examine the relationship between the independent variable (the cause) and the dependent variable (the effect); for example, does experi- mentally induced anxiety change pain perception? Independent variable: the characteristic that appears to cause a change in the dependent variable; for example, smoking (the independent variable) causes lung cancer (the dependent variable). Longitudinal design: this involves measuring variables at a baseline and then follow- ing up the subjects at a later point in time (sometimes called prospective or cohort design). Prospective design: this involves following up subjects over a period of time (sometimes called longitudinal or cohort design). Qualitative study: this involves methodologies such as interviews in order to collect data from subjects. Qualitative data is a way of describing the variety of beliefs, interpretations and behaviours from a heterogenous subject group without making generalizations to the population as a whole. It is believed that qualitative studies are more able to access the subjects’ beliefs without contaminating the data with the researcher’s own expectations.

This kind of behavior is obviously less true of charismatic groups Further Reading such as the military and some types of self-help groups buy 0.625mg premarin otc grants for women's health issues, Ankerberg premarin 0.625mg fast delivery pregnancy, John and Weldon buy cheap premarin 0.625 mg on-line women's health clinic in killeen tx, John. The Wrong Way Home: Uncovering Pat- Interviews with former cult members have revealed terns of Cult Behavior in American Society. Boston: Bea- that in extremist religious cults, there are often tremen- con Press, 1990. Critics of current New Patterns of Religious Pluralism in America, edited tests claim that they discriminate against ethnic minori- by T. To dramatize the discriminatory na- ture of most intelligence testing, Professor Robert L. Williams devised the Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity that requires a command of vocabulary items widely known among African Americans but not Culture-fair test familiar to most whites (such as “do rag” and “four cor- An intelligence test in which performance is not ners”) and a knowledge of black history and culture based on experience with or knowledge of a spe- (“Who wrote the Negro National Anthem? The first culture-fair test, called Army Ex- takers are also penalized in ways other than their unfa- amination Beta, was developed by the United States mil- miliarity with specific facts. Beginning in the postwar period, cul- them, further reduced by low levels of trust in and identi- ture-fair tests, which rely largely on nonverbal questions, fication with the person administering the test. In addi- have been used in public schools with Hispanic students tion, students from a minority culture may be more like- and other non-native-English speakers whose lack of fa- ly to interpret and answer a question in ways that differ miliarity with both English language and American cul- from the prescribed answer. The Cattell tests in predicting success in school, suggesting that in scales are intended to assess intelligence independent of their quest for academic success, members of minority cultural experience, verbal ability, or educational level. The tests consist mostly of paper-and-pencil questions involving the relationships Further Reading between figures and shapes. The Bell Curve Wars: Race, Intelligence, and the youngest age group, utilize various objects instead of the Future of America. The Bell Curve: children age eight and up, include completing series, Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. Culture-fair testing is a timely issue given current Mensh, Elaine, and Harry Mensh. His father was a successful provincial physician, and his grandfather, Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), had been a distinguished intellectual figure. Young Darwin attended the Shrewsbury School, and his early failure to achieve academic distinction continued at Edinburgh University, where he studied medicine, and at Cambridge University, where he studied theology. While at Cambridge, however, Darwin enthusiastically pursued natural history as an avo- cation, drawing the attention of botanist John Stevens Henslow (1796-1861) and geologist Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873). In 1831, through his connection with Henslow, Darwin joined the expedition team aboard the survey ship H. Beagle headed for the coasts of South America, the Galápagos Islands, New Zealand, and Tas- mania. There is some indication that Darwin went on the voyage in order to accompany Captain FitzRoy. FitzRoy, as captain, was not to socialize with the lower status crew members on the ship, and he was worried about maintain- ing his mental health during the long, solitary voyage. Upon his return to England, Darwin de- principles hold that in the struggle for existence, some veloped his theory of evolution, one of the major intellec- individuals, because of advantageous biological adap- tual achievements of the nineteenth century. However, be- tation,are better able to occupy effectively a given eco- cause of his creationist perspective, some of the observa- logical niche and therefore will produce more offspring tions made during the voyage were not useful in the devel- than individuals who are less able. In 1858, when another theory challenged biblically oriented views about the scientist, Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) shared his nature and origins of humans and animals, Darwin was observations gathered in the Malay Archipelago, Darwin extremely cautious and continued his research for an- hastened to publish The Origin of Species to ensure his other 18 years before publishing it in 1859 as On the own work would receive recognition. Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection; or, the Darwin’s theory of evolution postulates that all Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Within a few years, scientists were convinced and James Angell (1869-1949) in the United States, of the soundness of the theory, although popular debate who together founded the functionalist movement at about its ideological and theological implications has the University of Chicago. Sigmund Although psychology was one of the fields for Freud’s younger colleague, George J. Romanes (1848- which Darwin’s theory had revolutionary implications, 1894), to whom Darwin turned over his notes on ani- it was largely left to others—notably Darwin’s cousin mal behavior shortly before his death, established the Francis Galton—to expand them publicly. Paralleling the sci- toward the end of his career, Darwin published three ence of comparative anatomy, this field seeks to pro- books in which he explored how human mental quali- vide insights about human beings by studying the sim- ties could be understood as the result of evolution. In ilarities and differences between human and animal The Descent of Man (1871), he supported the contro- psychological functioning.

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