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Vitamin B12 supplementation has been tried for improving fertility in men with abnormal sperm production generic 70 mg alendronate visa menstrual cycle 0-5 days. Eat a healthful diet with organic whole grains 35 mg alendronate mastercard menopause underarm odor, vegetables alendronate 70mg with visa menstrual 8 days late, fruits, nuts, seeds, wild ﬁsh, and free-range poultry. Men should take antioxidants, L-carnitine, and a multivitamin/mineral complex containing adequate zinc and folate. Women should take a multivitamin/mineral complex and consider extra vitamin C and chasteberry. Approximately 30 percent of adults suffer occasionally from insomnia and 10 percent experience chronic insomnia. Sleep is vital for physical and mental health, yet it often gets sacriﬁced when we are busy. While it is thought that sleep is relaxing and passive, actually quite a lot happens in the body during sleep. During the deepest stages of sleep our bodies’ ma- jor organs and regulatory systems are busy working on repair and regeneration and secreting certain hormones. This may result from temporary situations, such as jet lag, stress at work, a brief illness, or a change in environment. When the precipitating factor disappears, the condition goes away, usually without medical treatment. Insomnia is classiﬁed as long term or chronic when it lasts more than three weeks. Possible causes include stress; depression; use of alcohol, caffeine, or nico- tine; snoring or sleep apnea; and other medical conditions as noted below. The exact amount of sleep needed varies among individuals, but is between seven and nine hours. Getting less than six hours is associated with health problems, I such as memory loss, poor concentration, depression, headache, irritability, increased response to stress, high blood pressure, depressed immune function, low libido, and weight gain. The most commonly used class is the benzodiazepines, including Ativan (lorazepam), Restoril (temazepam), and Valium (diazepam). These drugs are recommended only for short-term use (a few weeks), as they cause a number of side effects, including loss of short-term memory. When used over the long term, they become less effective, can result in dependency, and actually worsen sleep quality. Abruptly stopping use of these drugs can cause withdrawal symptoms therefore they I should be weaned off slowly (reduce dosage and take every other night) under doctor supervision. In most cases insomnia is temporary and can be improved with good sleep hygiene habits. Dietary Recommendations Foods to include: • A small snack before bed of food that contains tryptophan (an amino acid) stimulates the release of serotonin, a brain chemical that facilitates sleep. Foods to avoid: • Caffeine (coffee, tea, pop, and chocolate) can affect sleep quality, and should be avoided eight hours before bed. Leaving only ﬁve or six hours may make you feel stressed and affect your ability to fall asleep. Top Recommended Supplements Melatonin: A hormone that is naturally secreted by the brain in response to darkness and regulates sleep/wake cycles. Supplements reduce the time needed to fall asleep, reduce nighttime wakening, and improve sleep quality. It is particularly helpful for those who work shifts or travel to different time zones (jet lag). Valerian: An herb that is widely used for insomnia; it improves many aspects of sleep and is non-addictive. Some formulas combine valerian with hops, passion ﬂower, and other herbs that promote relaxation. Complementary Supplements Calcium and magnesium: Important minerals for muscle and nervous system relaxation. Note: Supplements that promote sleep should be used only occasionally, as it is important to address the underlying factors causing insomnia.
Correlational research is research designed to discover relationships among variables and to allow the prediction of future events from present knowledge cheap alendronate 70mg amex menstruation rectal pain. Experimental research is research in which initial equivalence among research participants in more than one group is created buy alendronate 70mg low cost menstrual cycle 9 days late, followed by a manipulation of a given experience for these groups and a measurement of the influence of the manipulation order 35 mg alendronate with visa menstrual anxiety. May be To create a snapshot of the Allows the development of questions unethical if participants do not Descriptive current state of affairs for further study. Allows testing of expected relationships between and among Cannot be used to draw To assess the relationships variables and the making of inferences about the causal between and among two or predictions. Can assess these relationships between and among Correlational more variables relationships in everyday life events. To assess the causal impact Cannot experimentally of one or more experimental Allows drawing of conclusions about manipulate many important manipulations on a the causal relationships among variables. There are three major research designs used by psychologists, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Descriptive Research: Assessing the Current State of Affairs Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. This section reviews three types of descriptive research: case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation. Sometimes the data in a descriptive research project are based on only a small set of individuals, often only one person or a single small group. These research designs are known as case studies—descriptive records of one or more individual’s experiences and behavior. Sometimes case studies involve ordinary individuals, as when developmental psychologist Jean Piaget used his observation of his own children to develop his stage theory of cognitive development. More frequently, case studies are conducted on individuals who have unusual or abnormal experiences or characteristics or who find themselves in particularly difficult or stressful situations. The assumption is that by carefully studying individuals who are socially marginal, who are experiencing unusual situations, or who are going through a difficult phase in their lives, we can learn something about human nature. Sigmund Freud was a master of using the psychological difficulties of individuals to draw conclusions about basic psychological processes. Freud wrote case studies of some of his most interesting patients and used these careful examinations to develop his important theories of personality. One classic example is Freud’s description of “Little Hans,‖ a child whose fear of horses the psychoanalyst interpreted in terms of repressed sexual impulses and the Oedipus  complex (Freud (1909/1964). Another well-known case study is Phineas Gage, a man whose thoughts and emotions were extensively studied by cognitive psychologists after a railroad spike was blasted through his skull in an accident. Although there is question about the interpretation of this case study (Kotowicz,  2007), it did provide early evidence that the brain’s frontal lobe is involved in emotion and  morality (Damasio et al. An interesting example of a case study in clinical psychology  is described by Rokeach (1964), who investigated in detail the beliefs and interactions among three patients with schizophrenia, all of whom were convinced they were Jesus Christ. The people chosen to participate in the research (known as the sample) are selected to be representative of all the people that the researcher wishes to know about (the population). In election polls, for instance, a sample is taken from the population of all “likely voters‖ in the upcoming elections. The results of surveys may sometimes be rather mundane, such as “Nine out of ten doctors prefer Tymenocin,‖ or “The median income in Montgomery County is $36,712. A final type of descriptive research—known as naturalistic observation—is research based on the observation of everyday events. For instance, a developmental psychologist who watches children on a playground and describes what they say to each other while they play is conducting descriptive research, as is a biopsychologist who observes animals in their natural habitats. One example of observational research involves a systematic procedure known as the strange situation, used to get a picture of how adults and young children interact. The data that are collected in the strange situation are systematically coded in a coding sheet such as that shown in Table 2. The baby resists being put down by the adult by crying or trying to climb Maintaining contact back up. Resistance The baby pushes, hits, or squirms to be put down from the adult’s arms. This table represents a sample coding sheet from an episode of the “strange situation,” in which an infant (usually about 1 year old) is observed playing in a room with two adults—the child’s mother and a stranger.
Foot pads of mice Armadillos Clinical features: Incubation period is months to years purchase alendronate 70mg without prescription breast cancer organization. Clinical triads: Anaesthetic skin patches 266 Peripheral neuritis Presence of acid-fast bacilli from skin lesion Two major types of leprosy 1 cost of alendronate breast cancer keychain. Comparison of the two types of leprosy Characteristics Lepromatous leprosy Tuberculoid leprosy 1 best alendronate 35 mg menstrual cycle at age 9. Usually positive Laboratory diagnosis: Specimen: Skin scrapings from the ear lobe. Non-viable bacilli stain poorly and unevenly as fragmented, beaded and granular red bacilli. When dry, hold fold of skin tightly between the thumb and forefinger until it becomes pale. Using the sterile blade, make a small cut through the skin surface, 5mm long and 2-3mm deep, where the bacteria is be found. Make a small circular smear of the tissue juice (Cover the cut with a small dressing). Wipe the back of the slide clean, and place in a draining rack for the smears to air-dry (protect from direct sun light). Most are soil saprophytes, but some are human pathogens responsible to cause actinomycosis nocardiosis and actinomycetoma. Large group of gram positive bacilli with a tendency to form chains and filaments. Endogenous members of the bacterial flora in the mouth and lower gastrointestinal tract Actinomycosis Chronic suppurative and granulomatous infection with interconnecting sinus tracts that contain sulfur granules Etiology: Actinomyces israeli Actinomyces naeslundii Characteristics:. Gram positive, facultative anaerobe substrate filaments that grow in co2 enriched condition Pathogenesis and clinical features:. Infection is initiated by trauma that introduces these endogenous bacteria into the mucosa 1. Cervico facial actinomycosis 270 Fluctuant mass with draining fistula in jaw area, and may extend to involve bone and lymphnodes in the head and neck 2. Thoracic actinomycosis Resemle subacute pulmonary infection with extension to chest wall and ribs 3. Abdominal actinomycosis May be secondary to ruptured appendix or ulcer with extensive involvement of abdominal organs Lab. Diagnosis: Specimen: Tissue, pus, sputum Smear: Gram-positive filaments with lobulated sulfur granules Culture: Thioglycolate broth or blood agar incubated anaerobically or co2 enriched condition Biochemical reacrion: Catalase positive/negative Treatment: Penicillin Clindamycin + Surgery Erythromycin Nocardiosis Etiology: Nocardia asteroides complex N. Aerobic gram positive, partially aci fast bacilli Pathogenesis and cloinical features: Route of transmission: Inhalation Usual presentation is subacute or chronic pulmonary infection with dissemination to the brain and skin Lab. Spirochete consist of protoplasmic cylinder bounded by a cell wall and outer membrane. There is an axial filament or endoflagella between the cell wall and outer membrane. Not cultured in artificial media, in fertilized eggs and tissue culture, but the saprophytic Reiter strain grows in anaerobic culture. Remain viable in the blood or plasma store at 4 c at least for 24 hrs (transmitted via blood transfusion) Antigenic structure:. Primary stage: Hard chancre: Clean-based, non-tender, indurated genital ulcer with inguinal lymphadenopathy. Secondary stage: Manifests with generalized maculopapular rash condylomata lata and white patches 274 in the mouth. There may be syphilitic meningitis, nephritis, periostitis, hepatitis and retinitis. Primary and secondary syphilis are rich in spirochete from the site of the lesion and patients are highly infectious. Early latent stage: Relapse of symptoms and signs occur, and patients are infectious.
The empirical methods used by scientists have developed over many years and provide a basis for collecting order alendronate amex menopause definition, analyzing purchase alendronate 70mg with visa women's health issues menopause, and interpreting data within a common framework in which information can be shared buy alendronate 35mg with mastercard women's health your best body meal plan week 1. We can label the scientific method as the set of assumptions, rules, and procedures that scientists use to conduct empirical research. Although scientific research is an important method of studying human behavior, not all questions can be answered using scientific approaches. Statements that cannot be objectively measured or objectively determined to be true or false are not within the domain of scientific inquiry. Values are personal statements such as “Abortion should not be permitted in this country,‖ “I will go to heaven when I die,‖ or “It is important to study psychology. Examples are “There were more than 21,000 homicides in the United States in 2009,‖ or “Research demonstrates that individuals who are exposed to highly stressful situations over long periods of time develop more health problems than those who are not. For instance, science may be able to objectively measure the impact of unwanted children on a society or the psychological trauma suffered by women who have abortions. The effect of capital punishment on the crime rate in the United States may also be determinable. This factual information can and should be made available to help people formulate their values about abortion and capital punishment, as well as to enable governments to articulate appropriate policies. Values also frequently come into play in determining what research is appropriate or Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. There were more than 30,000 deaths caused by handguns in the Handguns should be outlawed. More than 35% of college students indicate that blue is their Blue is my favorite color. Although scientists use research to help establish facts, the distinction between values and facts is not always clear-cut. Sometimes statements that scientists consider to be factual later, on the Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Although scientific procedures do not necessarily guarantee that the answers to questions will be objective and unbiased, science is still the best method for drawing objective conclusions about the world around us. When old facts are discarded, they are replaced with new facts based on newer and more correct data. Although science is not perfect, the requirements of empiricism and objectivity result in a much greater chance of producing an accurate understanding of human behavior than is available through other approaches. Levels of Explanation in Psychology The study of psychology spans many different topics at many different levels of explanation, which are the perspectives that are used to understand behavior. Lower levels of explanation are more closely tied to biological influences, such as genes, neurons, neurotransmitters, and hormones, whereas the middle levels of explanation refer to the abilities and characteristics of individual people, and the highest levels of explanation relate to social groups, organizations, and  cultures (Cacioppo, Berntson, Sheridan, & McClintock, 2000). The same topic can be studied within psychology at different levels of explanation, as shown in Figure 1. For instance, the psychological disorder known as depression affects millions of people worldwide and is known to be caused by biological, social, and cultural factors. Studying and helping alleviate depression can be accomplished at low levels of explanation by investigating how chemicals in the brain influence the experience of depression. This approach has allowed psychologists to develop and prescribe drugs, such as Prozac, which may decrease depression in many individuals (Williams, Simpson, Simpson, &  Nahas, 2009). At the middle levels of explanation, psychological therapy is directed at helping individuals cope with negative life experiences that may cause depression. And at the highest level, psychologists study differences in the prevalence of depression between men and women and across cultures. The occurrence of psychological disorders, including depression, is substantially higher for women than for men, and it is also higher in Western cultures, such as in the United States, Canada, and Europe, than in Eastern cultures, such as in India, China, and Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. These sex and cultural differences provide insight into the factors that cause depression. The study of depression in psychology helps remind us that no one level of explanation can explain everything.
The constructed of healing and ﬁghting is also involved in the trans- lodge is usually a round or oval-shaped dome cheap 70mg alendronate with mastercard menstrual cramp icd 9, rep- action purchase alendronate 70 mg mastercard breast cancer 60 mile walk. The origin of the sweating ceremony is resentative of the womb and sometimes called ascribed to the buffalo buy cheap alendronate 70 mg online women's health quick weight loss, and buffalo skull is always ‘Mother Earth’s womb’. Movements are performed itation and martial art, which originated in ancient slowly, softly, and gracefully with smooth, even China. Many practitioners say words for “Supreme Ultimate Force” and based on practicing t’ai ch’i offers improved posture, align- ﬁrst learning to feel and then to direct an energy ment, and/or movement patterns, all of which, known as chi (or qi). Taoism, a reﬂective, mystical Chinese philosophy ﬁrst associated with the scholar and mystic Lao Tzu tea, herbal Beverage made from various herbs, (Laozi), an older contemporary of Confucius. Lao such as chamomile tea to induce relaxation and Tzu wrote and taught in the province of Hunan in calm an upset stomach. Although Taoism has many elements, the major Thai massage Dating back to ancient times and concept is that the world is steeped in beauty and originating in northern India, a combination of should be viewed and treated with great reverence. Thai massage is worked on titioners, a long connection with the I Ching, a Chi- a floor with the client dressed in comfortable loose nese system of divination. It is performed in gentle, rhythmic the eight basic I Ching trigrams and the ﬁve ele- movements designed to energize and balance the ments of Chinese alchemy (metal, wood, ﬁre, body. Similar to acupressure and shiatsu, it has water, and earth) with the 13 basic postures of t’ai been nicknamed “yoga for the lazy. There are also focuses on the major meridians, also called energy other associations with the full 64 trigrams of the I lines or Nadis, which run throughout the body. In ated with the Chinese concept of yin-yang—the contrast to traditional Chinese medicine, which dynamic duality (male/female, active/passive, uses acupuncture to manipulate the pressure dark/light, forceful/yielding, etc. More information on the school, the number of exercises varies from is available at www. Energy ﬁeld cues energy ﬁelds, a scientiﬁc nursing intervention for- may be perceived by the practitioner as sensations mally developed in the early 1970s by Dolores such as heat, cold, tingling, or whatever is intuited. The Therapeutic Touch practitioner seeks of energy between the patient and practitioner, to repattern the recipient’s weakened or compro- unrufﬂing is a clearing or smoothing of the energy mised energy ﬂow and stimulate the immune sys- ﬁeld, especially in areas that are distressed. Once centered, the prac- Thomson, Samuel Leader of a movement of titioner “scans,” or assesses, the patient’s energy herbalists who patented his system of herbal medi- ﬁeld in order to perceive cues, that is, indicators of cine in 1813 and sold the rights to others who imbalance in the energy ﬁeld. They became known as Thom- lying down as the practitioner uses the palms of his sonian practitioners, and by 1839, there were or her hands to “connect” with the energy that sur- 100,000 in the United States. The Eclectics, who established many schools massage technique, as opposed to massages that in major American cities, published an ofﬁcial phar- involve pressure, oils, or forceful manipulation, macopoeia in 1854, which by 1909 reached its 19th that helps release tension in joints. The method edition, but because of the emergence of new drugs was developed by Dr. Milton Trager, who spent 50 and a growing pharmaceutical industry, the last of years expanding his theories. Born in Chicago in the Eclectic schools, in Cincinnati, Ohio, shut down 1908 with a congenital spinal deformity, Trager in 1939. Today’s schools of naturopathy provide overcame his disability and improved his body to courses in natural and holistic medicine practices athletic status. When he was in his late teens his including traditional Chinese medicine, homeopa- family had moved to Miami Beach, Florida, where thy, Ayurveda, nutrition, and herbal medicine. His trainer was tincture A liquid homeopathic remedy, usually so impressed by the results that Milton was with an alcohol base. At age 42 he applied to 70 medical schools before being accepted by Universi- tongue analysis Also called jihva, a system of dad Autonoma de Guadalajara in Mexico, where a diagnosis in Ayurvedic medicine based on observ- clinic was set up for him to continue his work in ing characteristics of the tongue. He continued to practice and (similar mapping of the soles of the feet is seen in teach for the next 20 years and cofounded the reﬂexology); ailments that include sensitive colon, Trager Institute in 1980. There are now thousands delicate heart, kidney disorder, bronchitis, pneu- of certiﬁed practitioners around the world. More ins in the colon or gastrointestinal tract, and information is available at www. Face, lips, nail, and eye evaluations are Transcendental Meditation Practiced by 5 mil- also used in Ayurvedic diagnostic measures. Tonics may be served hot or people around the world have learned Transcen- cold, depending upon the ingredients, which may dental Meditation (160,000 in Britain), and the include honey, various juices, cloves, cinnamon, ﬁrst published research on this technique appeared herbs, hot mustard powder, turmeric, cilantro, in 1970. It allows stress and tired- replace the services of a doctor in any way and ness to be released in a natural way, resulting in always advise people to follow the recommenda- greater energy, clarity, and enjoyment of life. As potential a result, more than 500 research and review papers • Reduction of stress covering a wide variety of physiological, psycho- logical, and sociological effects have been written.
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